| | | | |
 Welcome to Tamil Nadu Forest    Department
 
Wild Biodiversity
Back to Home
 
Kalakad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve
 
 

KMTR the 17th Tiger Reserve in India and the only one in Tamil Nadu, was declared as Tiger Reserve in 1988. This includes two contiguous Sanctuaries namely Kalakad Sanctuary and Mundanthurai Sanctuary and a part of Kanyakumari Sanctuary. The total area of the Tiger Reserve is 895 Sq.KM. This Reserve has been identified as one among the Type-1 Tiger Conservation Units (TCU) representing the tropical moist evergreen forests worldwide.

Tiger (Panthera Tigris)
Location
Map

KMTR is situated between latitudes 80 25’ North to 80 53’ North, between longitude 770 10’ East and 770 35’ East . It is located in the Southern Western Ghats. It also forms part of the interstate Agasthiyarmalai Biosphere Reserve . The altitude ranges from 40m above MSL to 1800 m above MSL. This Reserve receives rainfall from both the monsoons and the rainfall ranges from 750mm on the eastern outer slopes to 3500mm in the western higher reaches.

Flora
Panatheertham Falls
Sengaltheri Forests
Montane Wet Grassland
Danaid Eggfly

Important species include evolutionarily significant Sarcandra, a vessel less Angiosperm, Paphiopedulum, druryi, a rare orchid and Nageia wallichiana a broad leaved and only conifer tree of south India. Other important tree species include Hopea parviflora, Hopea utilis, Calophylum elatum, Cullenia exarillata, Artocarpus hirsute, Syzygium sp., Cinnamomum zeylanicum, macaranga roxburghii, Mesua ferrea, Gluta travancorica, Canarium strictum, Veteria malabarica, Myristica species, Vitex altissima, Dysoxylm malabaricum, Anacolosa densiflora, Elaeodendron glacum, Eleocarpus tuberculatus, Alstonia scholaris, Mangifera indica, Decussocarpus wallichianus, Podocarpus latifolia, Eugenia species, Garcinia cambogia,Xanthophyllum flavescens, Felicium decipiens, Mallotus phillippinensis, Litsea species, Dalbergia latifolia, Kingiodendron pinnatum, Wrightia tinctoria, Chloroxylon suietenia, Pterocarpus marsupium, Anogeissus latifolia, Careya arborea, Emblica officinalis, Dalbergia paniculata, Albizia lebeck, Tectona grandis, Ficus spp., Hardwickia binata, Terminalia chebula, etc..

Fauna
Lion Tailed Macaque
Hump Nosed Pit Viper
 
Crimson Rose

Fish:
Glossogobius giuris, Mastacembelus armatus, Channa striatus, Channa orientalis, Etroplus maculatus, Etroplus suratensis, Oreichormis mossambica (Tilapia mossambica), Macrones vittatus (Macrone vittatus), Ompak bimaculatus (callichrous bimaculates), Heteropneutes fossilis (saccobranchus fossilis), Xenentodon cancila (Belone cancila), Aplocheilus lineatus (Haplochilus rubrostigma), H.lineatus synonym of Aplocheilus lineatus, Bhavania australis (Homaloptera brucei), Gara lissorhynchus (Discognathus modestus), Cyprinus carpio communis, Labeo funbriatus, L.calbasu, Cirrhina mrigala, Catla catla, Puntius sarana sarana (Barbus sarana), Gonoproktopterus dubius (B.dubius), B.carnaticus, Tor khudree (B.malabaricus), Puntius amphibius (B.amphibius), Puntius arulius (B.arulius), Puntius filamentosus (B.machecola), Punties sophore (B.stigma), Parluciosma daniconius (Rasbora daniconius), Danio aequipinnatus, Salmostoma sardinella ( Chela untrahi), Nemacheilus pulchellus, Anguilla bengalensis

Amphibians:
Endemic species : Bufo beddomii, Bufo microtympanum, Indirana beddomi, Indirana brachytarsus, Indirana diplostictus, Indirana leptodactylus, Limnonectes keralensis, Melanobatrachus indicus, Micrixalus fuscus, Micrixalus suxicola, Nyctbatrachus deccanensis, Nyctibatrachus aliceae, Nyctibatrachus beddomii, Nyctibatrachus major, Nyctibatrachus vasanthi, Philautus charius, Philautus glandulosus, Philautus pulcherimus, Philautus variabilis, Ramanella Montana, Rana aurantiaca, Rana curtipes, Rana malabarica, Rana temporalis, Rhacophorus calcadensis, Rhacophorus malabaricus, Uraeotyphlus malabaaricus.

Non–Endemic species :
Bufo melanostictus, Bufo fergusoni, Euphlyctis cynophlictis, Hoplobatrachus tigerinus, Ichthyophis longicephalus, Ichthyophis sp-1, Ichthyophis sp-2, Limnonectes keralensis, Limnonectes limnocharis, Micrixalus opisthorhodus, Micrixalus silvaticus, Microhyla ornata1 Microhyla rubra, Phillatus beddomii, Phillatus nasutus, Polypedates maculatus,sEERana brachytarsus, Tomopterna rolande, Uraeotyphlus oxyurus.

Reptiles
Endemic species : Ahaetulla dispar, Ahaetulla perrotetti, Amphiesma beddomii, Brachipodium rhodogaster, Calliophis melanurus nigroscenes, Calotes adamanensis, Calotes ellioti, Calotes grandiquamis, Calotes nemoricola, Calotes rouxii, Calotes versicolor, Cnemaspis beddomei, Cnemaspsis indica, Cnemaspis ornatus, Dendrelaphis granddoculis, Draco dussumieri, Geoemyda silvatica, Hemidactylus anamallensis, Hemidactylus maculatus, Liopeltis calamaria, Lycodon travancoricus, Mabuya gansi, Melanochelys trijuga, Melanophodium punctatum, Oligodon brevicaudus, Otocryptis beddomii, Psammophilus dorsalis, Python molurus, Ristella beddomii, Scincella travancoricus, Teretrurus gramineus, Trimeresurus malabaricus, Trimeresurus strigatus, Uropeeltis arcticeps, Uropeltis ellioti, Uropeltis liura, Uropeltis ocellatus, Varanus bengalensis.

Non endemic species : Ahaetulla dispar, Ahaetulla nasutus, Ahaetulla pulverulenta, Amphiesma stolata, Atretium schistosum, Boiga ceylonensis, Boiga forsteni, Boiga trigonatus, Bungarus caeruleus, Calotes calotes, Chamaeleo zeylanicus, Chrysopelea ornate, Cnemaspis littoralis, Coluber mucosus, Crocodiles palustris,Cytodactylus dakanensis, Dasia halianus, Dendrelaphis tristis, Elaphe helena, Eryx conicus, Geochelone elegans, Hemidactylus brookii, Hemidactylus frenatus, Hemidactylus leschenaulti, Hemidactylus triedrus, Heosemys silvatica, Hypnale hypnale, Lycodon aulicus, Lygosoma punctatus, Mabuya beddomei, Mabuya carinata, Mabuya macularicus, Macropisthodon plumbicolor, Naja naja, Oligodon ornensis, Oligodon taeniolatus, Ophiophagus hannah, Ophisops leschenaultii, Psammophilius blanfordanus, Ptyas conicus, Ptyas mucous, Ramphotyphlops braminus, Riopa punctata, Sitana ponticeriana, Sphenomorphus dussumieri, Trimeresurus macrolepis, Typolops braminsee, Vipera russelii, Xenochropis piscator.

Tiger Species
Monitor Lizard
Vine Snake
Wood Spider

Birds
Grey Francolin, Rain Quail, Jungle Bush Quail, Small Buttonquail, Yellow-legged Button quail, Barred Button quail, Red Spurfowl, Painted Spurfowl, Grey Junglefowl, Indian Peafowl, Bar-headed Goose, Lesser Whistling-duck, Cotton Pygmy-goose, Spot-billed Duck, Northern Pintail, Eurasian Wryneck, Speckled Piculet, Rufous Woodpecker, White-bellied Woodpecker, Brown-capped Pygmy, Woodpecker, Lesser Yellownape, Streak-throated Woodpecker, Common Flameback, Black-rumped Flameback, Greater Flameback, Brown-headed Barbet Crimson-fronted Barbet, Coppersmith Barbet, Malabar Grey Hornbill, Great Hornbill, Common Hoopoe, Malabar Trogon, Indian Roller, Common Kingfisher, Oriental Dwarf Kingfisher, Stork-billed Kingfisher,White-throated Kingfisher, Black-capped Kingfisher, Pied Kingfisher, Green Bee-eater, Blue-tailed Bee-eater, Chestnut-headed Bee-eater, Pied Cuckoo, Chestnut-winged Cuckoo Large Hawk Cuckoo, Indian Cuckoo, Lesser Cuckoo, Grey-bellied Cuckoo, Drongo Cuckoo, Asian Koel, Blue-faced Malkoha, Sirkeer Malkoha, Greater Coucal, Vernal Hanging Parrot, Rose-ringed Parakeet, Plum-headed Parakeet, Malabar Parakeet, Indian Swiftlet,White-rumped Needletail, Asian Palm Swift, House Swift, Fork-tailed Swift, Alpine Swift, Crested Treeswift, Oriental Bay Owl, Oriental Scops Owl, Eurasian Eagle Owl, Spot-bellied Eagle Owl, Brown Fish Owl, Brown Wood Owl, Jungle Owlet, Spotted Owlet, Brown Hawk Owl, Sri Lanka Frogmouth, Grey Nightjar, Large-tailed Nightjar, Indian Nightjar, Rock Pigeon, Nilgiri Wood Pigeon, Mountain Imperial Pigeon, Laughing Dove, Spotted Dove, Eurasian Collared Dove, Emerald Dove, Pompadour Green Pigeon, Slaty-legged Crake, White-breasted Waterhen, Purple Swamphen, Common Moorhen, Common Coot, Snipe, Green Sandpiper, Eurasian Thick-Knee, Black-winged Stilt, Little Ringed Plover, Yellow-wattled Lapwing, Red-wattled Lapwing, River Tern, Whiskered Tern, Osprey, Jerdon's Baza, Black Baza, Black-shouldered Kite, Black Kite, Brahminy Kite, Grey-headed Fish Eagle, Egyptian Vulture, Red-headed Vulture, Crested Serpent Eagle, Pallid Harrier, Crested Goshawk, Shikra, Besra,Eurasian Sparrowhawk, Oriental Honey-buzzard, Common Buzzard, Long-legged Buzzard, Tawny Eagle, Booted Eagle, Rufous-bellied Eagle, Changeable Hawk Eagle, Kestrel, Eurasian Hobby, Laggar Falcon, Little Grebe, Darter, Little Cormorant, Little Egret, Great Egret, Intermediate Egret, Cattle Egret, Indian Pond Heron, Grey Heron, Little Heron, Black-crowned Night Heron, Malayan Night Heron, Black Bittern, Glossy Ibis, Black-headed Ibis, Black Ibis, Eurasian Spoonbill, Spot-billed Pelican, Painted Stork, Asian Openbill, Indian Pitta, Asian Fairy Bluebird, Blue-winged Leafbird, Brown Shrike, Bay-backed Shrike, Rufous Treepie, White-bellied Treepie, House Crow, Large-billed Crow, Ashy Woodswallow, Eurasian Golden Oriole, Black-hooded Oriole, Large Cuckooshrike, Black headed Cuckooshrike, Small Minivet, Scarlet Minivet, Bar-winged Flycatchershrike, Black Drongo, Ashy Drongo, White-bellied Drongo, Bronzed Drongo, Greater Racket-tailed Drongo, Black-naped Monarch, Asian Paradise-Flycatcher, Common Iora, Large Woodshrike, Common Woodshrike, Blue Rock Thrush, Malabar Whistling Thrush, Pied Thrush, Orange-headed Thrush, Scaly Thrush, Eurasian Blackbird, White-bellied Shortwing, Asian Brown Flycatcher, Rusty-tailed Flycatcher, Brown-breasted Flycatcher, Red-throated Flycatcher, Black-and-orange Flycatcher, Verditer Flycatcher, Nilgiri Flycatcher, White-bellied Blue Flycatcher, Blue-throated Flycatcher, Tickell's Blue Flycatcher, Grey-headed Canary Flycatcher, Indian Blue Robin, Oriental Magpie Robin, Indian Robin, Black Redstrat, Pied Bushchat, Chestnut-tailed Starling, Brahminy Starling, Common Myna, Jungle Myna, Hill Myna, Velvet-fronted Nuthatch, Black-lored Tit, Eurasian Crag Martin, Dusky Crag Martin, Barn Swallow, Pacific Swallow, Wire-tailed Swallow, Red-tailed Swallow, Northern House Martin, Grey-headed Bulbul, Black-crested Bulbul, Red-whiskered Bulbul, Red-vented Bulbul, White-browed Bulbul, Yellow-browed Bulbul, Black Bulbul, Grey-breasted Prinia, Jungle Prinia, Ashy Prinia, Oriental White-eye, Grosshopper Warbler, Blyth's Reed Warbler, Thick-billed Warbler, Broad-tailed Grassbird, Orphean Warbler, Common Tailorbird, Greenish Warbler, Large-billed Leaf Warbler, Western Crowned Warbler, Wynaad Laughingthrush, Grey-breasted Laughing-thrush, Puff-throated Babbler, Indian Scimitar Babbler, Tawny-bellied Babbler, Dark-fronted Babbler, Yellow-eyed Babbler, Rufous Babbler, Jungle Babbler, Yellow-billed Babbler, Brown-cheeked Fulvetta, Singing Bushlark, Indian Bushlark, Ashy-crowned Sparrow Lark, Eurasian Skylrak, Thick-billed Flowerpecker, Purple-rumped Sunbird, Crimson-backed Sunbird, Purple Sunbird, Loten's Sunbird, Little Spiderhunter, House Sparrow, Forest Wagtail, White Wagtail, White-browed Wagtail, Yellow Wagtail, Grey Wagtail, Nilgiri Pipit, Paddyfield Pipit, Baya Weaver, Indian Silverbill, White-rumped Munia, Black-throated Munia, Scaly-breasted Munia, Black-headed Munia, Common Rosefinch.

Mammals
The flagship species are Tiger, Asian Elephant and Lion tailed Macaque. The co-predators of Tiger include wild-dog or Indian Dhole and Leopard. Other species are: Madras hedgehog, Days' shrew, Grey musk shrew, Hill (mountain) shrew, Pygmy shrew, Fulvous fruit bat, Indian flying fox, Lesser dog-faced fruit bat, Short-nosed fruit bat, Lesser mouse-tailed bat, Black-beared tomb bat, Pouch-bearing bat, Greater false vampire, Lesser false vampire, Rufous horseshoe bat, Blyth's horseshoe bat, Lesser woolly horseshoe bat, Dusky leaf-nosed bat, Fulvous leaf-nosed bat, Schneider's leaf-nosed bat, Evening bat, Painted bat, Slender loris, Bonnet macaque, Lion-tailed macaque, Common langur, Nilgiri langur, Indian jackal, Bengal fox (from outside PA), Dhole or Asiatic wild dog, Sloth bear, Nilgiri marten, Common otter, Smooth coated otter, Oriental small clawed otter, Small Indian civet, Common palm civet, Jerdon's (brown) pawn civet, Common Indian mongoose, Brown mongoose, Ruddy mongoose, Stripe-necked mangoose, Leopard cat, Jungle cat, Rusty-spotted cat, Leopard, Tiger, Asian elephant, Wild boar, Indian spotted chevrotain or mouse deer, Barking deer, Chital, Sambar, Gaur, Nilgiri tahr, Indian pangolin, Common palm squirrel, Dusky striped squirrel, Jungle striped squirrel, Indian giant squirrel, Indian giant flying squirrel, Travancore flying squirrel, Malabar spiny dormouse, Indian gerbil, Indian bush rat, Soft-furred field rat or metad, White-bellied wood rat, Indian field mouse, Bonhote's mouse, House mouse, Spiny field mouse, Indian long-tailed tree mouse, Lesser bandicoot rat, large bandicoot rat, Indian porcupine and hare.

Small Blue Kingfisher
Blue Pansy
Common Nawab
Common Mongoose
Medicinal Plant Conservation Area

1. MPCA- Mundanthurai
In Mundanthurai Range, Medicinal plants were planted over 150 ha. Hibiscus, Emblica, Pomagranade, Tulsi, Vilvam and other medicinal plants were raised. Besides, from 2001-02, upto 2005-06 nearly 36000 plants have been distributed free of cost to the public. Moreover about 4000 seedlings have been planted in Agathiar Kani Settlement, Servalar Settlement, Mundanthurai Forest staff quarters, Kani school buildings and Servalar Government Hospital building.

2. MPCA- Nambikoil
Nambikoil nursery is established in ½ an acre area. Emblica, Neem, Vettiver, Naval are some of the medicinal plants raised there. From 2003-04, 2005-06 nearly 20,000 seedlings were raised and distributed locally free of cost. Further 4000 seedlings have been distributed as a part of raising medicinal plants through kitchen garden in the nearby villages.

Eco- Development

Eco-development project was implemented in KMTR from 1994 to 2001 with assistance from World Bank. The main objectives of the project are as follows :

  • To establish committed grass root level organizations concerned with conservation by educating, motivating and involving local people in the Eco- development villages.
  • To achieve reduction in resource dependency on forests of the Reserve and thus lead to habitat improvement and conservation. This is being achieved by providing alternative income generation activities to forest dependents in the community and improving their skills
  • Knowledge for the new way of living; developing suitable biomass in and around the target villages (firewood, fodder, small timber and fruit trees) and encouraging reduction in the use of firewood, increasing the efficiency of energy use, motivating people to use alternate energy materials and methods.
  • To create awareness about the value of the Reserve and the need to conserve it among the target villages using different media (folk arts, audio-visual, posters and brochures).
  • To enhance the capacity among local people in needed skills and knowledge by way of organizing training courses, workshops and field visits.

Improved forest protection resulting in improved tiger habitat (KMTR), better awareness of the need to have clean catchment watershed area resulting in improved flow into the Thambarabarani river, forest dependents acting as informants against poaching and being better prepared to handle forest fires are the major achievements of our eco-development works.

 
Tourist info

Biodiversity
Western Ghats is one of the 25 global hotspots and one of the 3 mega centres of endemism in India. Agasthiyarmalai which forms part of KMTR is one of the 5 centres of plant diversity and endemism in India (IUCN). Among all the Tiger Reserves in the country, KMTR is probably the richest from the biodiversity point of view. This is also described as ‘Super hotspot’ of Biodiversity.
The floral diversity includes 2,254 Angiosperms which includes 448 endemic species, 58 Red- listed species, 601 Medicinal species, 90 species of wild relatives of the cultivated plants. There are 3 Gymnosperms and 156 Pteridophytes. The faunal diversity includes 47 species of fish, 47 species of amphibians, 89 species of reptiles, 337 species of Birds and 79 species of Mammals. The entire spectrum of biodiversity of KMTR has been documented in book titled “Biodiversity of Kalakad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve” by R. Annamalai and published by Tamil Nadu Forest Department. ‘Current science’ has brought out a special issue on KMTR (Volume 18, No.3, 10th February 2001).

Sloth Bear
Approach
This reserve has access by road to Thirukarangudi, Kalakad, Papanasam and Sivasailam which are 50 to 55 KM away from the District Headquarters Tirunelveli. Buses are plying to reach Mundanthurai and Upper Kodayar and these roads pass through the Tiger Reserve.
The nearest railway station, Tirunelveli is 50 KM from Mundanthurai and 45KM from Kalakad.
Trivandrum Airport is 200 KM from Mundanthurai and 140 KM from Kalakad. Madurai Airport is 200 KM from Mundanthurai and 210 KM from Kalakad.
Places of Interest

Waterfalls
There are 3 important waterfalls which attract lakhs of tourists every year. They are Agasthiyar falls and Banatheerthum falls adjoining Karayar Dam in Mundanthurai Range and Manimuthar falls in Ambasumdhram Range.

Religious Tourism
Sorimuthu Iyyanarkoil in Mundanthurai Range, Nambi koil in Thirukkarankudi Range and Golaknath Temple in Kadayam Range are important tourist destinations.

Manimuthar Falls
The Kani Tribe
Forest types of KMTR
Type Code Forest Type
1. 1A/C3 Southern Hilltop Evergreen Forests
2. 1A/C4 West coast Tropical Wet Evergreen Forests
3. 2A/C3 Tirunelveli Semi Evergreen Forests
4. 3B/C2 Southern Moist Mixed Deciduous Forests
5. 4F/RSI Tropical Riparian Fringing Forests
6. 5A/C1(b) Dry Teak Forests
7. 5A/C3 Southern Dry Mixed Deciduous Forests
8. 6A/C2 Carnatic Umbrella Thorn Forests
9.8A/E1 Ochlandra Reeds
10. Southern Montane Wet Grass Land
Trekkers delight
  • Thalayanai – 6 KM. – Karungal Kasam/ Woodhouse and Dormitary 7.5 KM. Mudul
  • Iruppan W. House – 7 KM – Mulakalasam – 15 KM – Kakachi
  • (Log house) – 14 KM Upper Kodaiyar – Sengaltheri ( R. House, W.house, I.Shed) – 14 KM - K.Range – K.R.F.
  • Netterikal (No halt) – 8 KM – Thirukurankudi Range K.R.F.
  • Narakad (No halt) – 19 KM- Nambikoil (W.House)
  • Kannikatti FRH – 21 KM. – Pandipatti
  • Mundanthurai – (18th KM. Vadamadi RH) – 24 KM Valaiyar
  • Karaiyar – 4 KM - Sevalar (E.B.) Rest House
  • Kalakad Range – K.R.F. – Sengaltheri R.H. Dormitory – 10 KM- Mulakalasam
Accommodation
Forest Rest Houses: Mundanthurai,Kalakad(Sengaltheri) and Kuthiravotti
Contact:
CHIEF CONSERVATOR OF FORETS & FIELD DIRECTOR,
PROJECT TIGER, KALAKAD MUNDUNTHURAI TIGER SANCTUARY, NGO COLONY,
TIRUNELVELI 627 007
Phone: 0462-2552663
E-mail: tvl-kmtrpt@sancharnet.in
 
 
 
TamilNadu Forest Department © Copyright 2007 l Disclaimer
Email: tnfdgis@vsnl.net
Site Maintained by National Information Centre